Robots are machines that function automatically and have the potential to adapt to the changes in their environments. Karl Capek, a writer from Czechoslovakia, used the term “robot” for the very first time in his play called Rossum’s Universal Robots.
People have long been craving for machines that could operate without supervision. In these present times, these automatic machines have become an essential part of society. They are science fiction staples performing several tasks that can be tedious or dangerous for an individual. The main components of the robot include:
The Manipulator In Robots
These machines come with manipulators that work in the same way as the arms of a human being. The manipulator in a robot features several links and joints.
End Effectors In Robots
Manipulators are fixed to base support while their free ends are attached to the end effector. The end effector in a robot performs tasks that are considered to be performed by the fingers and the palm in human beings. The end effectors help these machines in carrying out assigned tasks and in interacting with the surrounding environment. It is important to note that the shape and size of the end effectors might change according to the task a robot has been specifically designed to do.
Take, for instance, the workers at a robot factor who have several interchangeable devices like welding torches and paint sprayers. The mobile robots like the probes transferred to different planets, or the bomb disposal machines generally have global grippers mimicking the function served by a human hand.
When it comes to the human body, people get the power to move their palm, fingers, and arm through their muscles. In the case of a robot, this power comes from different motors used for the task. This complete amalgamation of different motors enabling robots to move their manipulators is called locomotion.
The motor utilized for offering locomotion to robots are found in three different categories based on their energy sources. These include pneumatic, hydraulic, and electric.
The control system of a robot makes use of feedback to operate correctly. There is a digital computer with software and hardware that serves as a controller. This control system operates in the same way as the human brain. The controller can be used for enabling the machine to do different assigned tasks.
The control system in a robot controls and directs the movements of the manipulators along with the end effectors. The robot brain features a kind of silicon chip known as CPU. The CPU collects data through sensors and helps the robot in carrying out different tasks.
Sensors in a robot carry out the task of supplying data to the brain. Without the availability of this data, a robot would not be able to function the way it wants. It might have compromised intelligence, making it something as close to a toy. A robot will not be able to do any meaningful tasks if it does get information from the sensors.